Thursday, December 26, 2019

How Probation Officers Are Within Society And The...

While it may be more exciting and relevant to read the work of contemporary thinkers, it is also beneficial for aspiring sociologists to familiarize themselves with the work of earlier theorists. As our world progresses and society becomes more self aware, we discover issues and angles that the founders of sociology missed. Even though studying the founders comes across contradictory at times because sociologists are interested in correcting social injustices and most of the earlier theorists discriminated against one or more marginalized groups, it provides us with a foundation to build on for the work we do today. The purpose of this paper is to connect the work of two theorists, Jane Addams and Emile Durkheim, with my research projects, which will eventually become my dissertation. Both of these theorists are considered members of the sociological cannon and influenced the work of later theorists. My dissertation will focus on how probation officers are situated in society an d the challenges faced by people suffering from mental illness coming into contact with the criminal justice system. It will explore the welfare of officers, treatment of offenders, and the overall role of community supervision in the community. I will introduce my work and explain how the ideas of Addams and Durkheim are associated with my approach to this contemporary issue. It is important to note that I am currently the Assistant Chief at the Atlanta Felony Probation Office and will also beShow MoreRelatedIntroduction. Toronto, Including The Greater Toronto Area,1316 Words   |  6 Pages000 people in 2005 (Monga Bay, n.d.). The fluctuation in population reflects a simple change in number over time and that change can cause an alteration of societal values, striving to change the criminal justice system. Youth probation officers have a role in the criminal justice system to supervise young offenders to ensure a compliance with court orders and are on good behaviour for an arranged period of time (Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Service, 2016). Youth probation officersRead MorePrison Overcrowding And The Criminal Justice System Essay1497 Words   |  6 Pagescontinues to add stress on the entire criminal justice system. Public Defenders, wardens, judges, governors, and probation officers must amalgamate to help resolve this issue. These entities usually run independently from each other and do not continuously consider the influence decisions have on the prison system. This paper incorporates a panel discussion and media broadcast between a judge, a warden, a governor, a public defender, and a probation officer. After a fight breaks out at Elm HeightsRead MoreProbation Is The Criminal Justice System2410 Words   |  10 PagesQuestion one Probation is defined as ‘the conditional release of an offender into the community, under the supervision of a probation officer. The inclination made from this definition is that probation is not permanent and is revocable if certain conditions are not met as per the agreement between the criminal justice system and the offender (Schemalleger, 2009). The rations for probation are usually four: allowing the offender to be part of the community’s reintegration services. It relies onRead MoreFurther, Research Has Been Done Specifically In The Realm1727 Words   |  7 Pagesare on at one point or another, there are countless challenges that are faced by not only the offender, but the supervising staff. However, according to these researchers there are a number of things that supervising agencies can be doing to aid their mentally ill offenders in desisting from crime. First, the research conducted concluded that by having a strong working relationship with the mentally ill offenders that the case manager, officer, etc. is supervising is essential to build trust. SecondRead MorePolice Misconduct And The Shooting Death Of Michael Brown861 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Community policing in America today has been tremendously affected over the past two years by a number of events involving the police and their interactions with people of color, and minority communities. Most of these problems between the police and minority communities have stemmed from incidents and reports of police misconduct and abuses of power, use of excessive force, and increases in police involved shootings. One major events that drew national attention, caused problems, andRead MoreQuestions On Detention And Imprisonment Essay3721 Words   |  15 PagesBACKGROUND 2 3.1. Local legislations 2 3.2. International instruments 3 CHAPTER TWO 4 4. ALTERNATIVES TO DETENTION AND IMPRISONMENT IN THE JUSTICE SECTOR 4 4.1. PRE-TRIAL ALTERNATIVES 4 4.1.1. Referrals to alternative dispute resolution 4 4.1.2. Diversion 4 4.2. ALTERNATIVES AT THE TRIAL STAGE 5 4.2.1. Bail/bond 5 4.3. POST TRIAL ALTERNATIVES 5 4.3.1. Probation 5 4.3.2. Community service orders 6 4.3.3. Suspended sentences 6 4.3.4. fine 7 4.3.5. Payment of compensation 7 4.3.6. Security to keep theRead MoreLaw Enforcement in the 21st Century15936 Words   |  64 PagesLaw Enforcement in a Democratic Society cha pt er 1 ISBN 0-558-46766-0 Law Enforcement in the 21 Century, Second Edition, by Heath B. Grant and Karen J. Terry. Published by Allyn Bacon. Copyright  © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. st Chapter Out line INTRODUCTION The Themes of the Book The Police Function: Social Control and the Use of Force Policing Within the Rule of Law: The Challenges of Discretion The Delicate Balance: Crime Control versus Due Process The Levels of Law Enforcement MunicipalRead MoreCriminal Justice System : Crime, Policing, Courts, And Corrections3651 Words   |  15 PagesThe analysis of a Criminal Justice System should take place in four sections: crime, policing, courts, and corrections. Crime occurs ubiquitously in the world; crime is so common that there is an entire profession made to study why crime occurs, there is also another profession meant to enforce the laws that define what is criminal. South Korea, like most other countries, has a common requirement to enter their criminal justice system: committing a crime is the first step in the process. The mostRead MoreModernizing Mental Healthcare And The Juvenile Justice System Essay2186 Words   |  9 PagesModernizing Mental Healthcare in The Juvenile Justice System Rhoshunda Ellis Walden University Modernizing Mental Healthcare in The Juvenile Justice System Introduction As a Human Services Professional with a background in criminal justice, this article will focus on accessing and helping juvenile offenders in the United States struggling with mental health disorders. For sentenced juveniles with behavioral problems and concerns of mental health, being included in a juvenile mental health court canRead MoreRe-entry: Prison and Reentry Programs4772 Words   |  20 PagesMany criminals are sent to jail on a day to day basis. Once they have completed their sentence they are faced with many problems once they are â€Å"free†. These problems can be but are not limited to housing, employment, and substance abuse. The prisoner, once they are released, has a tendency to go back to their old ways and to continue the life of crime they were a part of prior to prison. To avoid this, while a prisoner is in prison, the staff creates a reentry program for the prisoner. The reentry

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Shift from Traditional Societies to a Market Society

Material and ideological conditions are integral components of a market society, which interacted and changed the ways we view market society today. I will discuss the shift from traditional societies to a market society to explain what Polanyi refers to as â€Å"the great transformation†. I will then talk about the changes that have occurred in the workplace, the impact on these workers, and the worldview of those in a market society. According to Polanyi, a market economy becomes a market society when all land, labour and capital are commodified (Polanyi, 1957). A market society is a structure, which primarily focuses on the production and distribution of commodities and services. This takes place through a free market system, which allows†¦show more content†¦As Bendix explains, Weber believed that if a man’s hard work was seen as being naturally rewarding, that he would then work for his personal satisfaction (Bendix, 1962). This is referred to as the †Å"spirit of capitalism†, which is a contrasted term to â€Å"traditionalism†, where workers prefer less work to more pay, seek maximum comfort and minimum exertion during working hours, and are unable or unwilling to adapt themselves to new methods of work. Adherence to â€Å"traditionalism† is incompatible with the idea of â€Å"hard work as a virtue and hence a moral obligation†, or the â€Å"spirit of capitalism† (Bendix, 1962, p.52). Therefore, the â€Å"spirit of capitalism† is the idea and quality of living, which favours the rational pursuit of economic gain. A man’s hard work was to be seen as naturally rewarding and would therefore work for his own personal satisfaction. Polanyi’s describes Adam Smith’s idea of the â€Å"economic man†, as a notion of human nature in which we are meant to exchange (Polanyi, 1957). Since we are living in a market society, people must adopt a capitalistic mindset that seeks individual advantage that puts individual needs over social needs. This mindset supports the capitalist mode of production, as we concern ourselves with making money so we can buy things, which is essentially capitalisms goal. With this mindset, workers strive to work longer hours on clock time, to earn a wage in order to buy things for their own satisfaction. Bendix also discussesShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Karl Polanyi s Societies And Economic Systems 1389 Words   |  6 Pages Transformation of The Workplace In Karl Polanyi’s article â€Å"Societies and Economic Systems†, Karl Rinehart’s ‘Alienation and the Development of Industrial Capitalism in Canada’, and Richard Bendix’s â€Å"Aspects of Economic Rationality in the West†, the emergence and transformation to a market society is displayed through ideological and material conditions. Polanyi attempts to uncover the rise of the market economy by examining past economic structures and the change in the role of commoditiesRead MoreIn The Great Transformation, Karl Polanyi Speaks Of The1528 Words   |  7 Pagesof the shift from traditional society to a market society as the ‘great transformation’. In The Making of Economic Society, Robert Heilbroner addresses key areas in which our market society differs from previous social structures. In The Tyranny of Work, James W. Rinehart addresses how this shift affected workers. Finally, through interpretation of Max Weber’s wor ks in Max Weber, Richard Bendix addresses how the Protestant Reformation made way for the work ethic required for a market society to flourishRead MoreAnalysis Of Cornel West, An American Philosopher And Political Activist1444 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"We live in a predatory capitalist society in which everything is for sale. Everybody is for sale, so there is ubiquitous commodification.† This quotation by Cornel West, an American philosopher and political activist, conveys the widespread objectification of human beings in our society. The narrow, traditional image of prostitution has experienced a dramatic shift in the post-industrial American society. Sex workers are not automatically considered to be from low-income, marginalized groups, andRead MoreKarl Polanyi, Max Weber And Robert Heilbroner1540 Words   |  7 Pagespresent in the modern society and those before, each influencing the other. Material conditions determine an individual’s way of life, the wages t hey collect, and how such earnings determine social class. It is through ideological conditions that ideas derive, which give birth to the ways civilization behaves and operates. This paper will look at a series of theoretical works by Karl Polanyi, James Rinehart, Max Weber, and Robert Heilbroner, deliberating the market society and its progression inRead MoreEssay on Market Society1680 Words   |  7 Pagesexplain about the important shift to market society by explaining the material and ideological conditions that help integrate the society to transform into the market society. Firstly, this paper is going to explain the material conditions by showing what characterizes a market society and this also show how the market society differs from the structures of the previous social organization, and also the changes that take place in the workplace due to the shift to market society. Secondly, this paper willRead MoreThe Emergence Of Market Society1573 Words   |  7 PagesThe whol e society has become a market. Societies used to consist of people that were governed by certain ideologies, laws, and practices. Being driven by capitalism, society has developed everything into a commodity, in which we now call a market society. Other socio-economic communities historically had concepts that were different from what is predominated in our present society. The emergence of market society establishes the great transformation from a traditional society to a market economy thatRead MoreTraditional Aboriginal Art As A Communication Tool Throughout Australian Aboriginal History993 Words   |  4 PagesTraditional Aboriginal Art Art has been used as a communication tool throughout Australian aboriginal history. They were utilized to convey knowledge of ancestral pasts and tapping into the spiritual power of their beliefs. In a traditionally oriented Aboriginal society, art was also very valuable. It was placed under such high regards that producing them are being controlled and access to them are restricted to only people of certain status . The body of the artwork are also predetermined. ThusRead MoreEssay on Multinationalism and Globalization in Britain1133 Words   |  5 Pagesregarded as a Postmodern society, and if this is the case must be subject to two of the central issues of this circumstance: those of first globalisation, then multinationalism. What is it that these concepts constitute that affects contemporary British society? The academic, David Held describes globalisation as the increasing extent, intensity, velocity and impact of world-wide interconnectedness - that is the growing extent to which societies, more local groupingsRead MoreThe Main Point Rebecca Traister Is Attempting To Make In1177 Words   |  5 PagesThe main point Rebecca Traister is attempting to make in her novel, All the Single Ladies, is one concerning the radical shift in the idea of women’s roles within American society since the post-war period. More specifically, Traister argues that this shift has resulted in a redefinition of what it means to be a woman, one that expands previously rigid role categories. Traister argues that it’s because of this redefinition that we see such a large decrease in married individuals within the UnitedRead MoreThe Case Study Of Barbies Success Story1007 Words   |  5 Pages BARBIE’S SUCCESS STORY Friday 12 August 2011 THE CASE The case examines the evolution of the Barbie doll over the years from its launch in 1959. It explores the product development strategies adopted by Mattel for Barbie and the reasons for the success of Barbie. The case also explores changes in Barbie s image along with the changes in American society. The criticism leveled against Barbie by feminists has also been described. The case also examines the challenges that Barbie could

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Similarities and Differences Between Christianity Hinduism free essay sample

Examine and comment on contrasting standpoints about God and/or existence in relation to the topic you have investigated. Christianity and Hinduism seem to have profoundly different views in relation to God and/or existence. For example, creation within Christian belief is primarily ex-nihilo (out of nothing). God created everything in 7 days from the light and darkness, to the day of rest. This can be illustrated by reference to Genesis 1:1 – 2:4a â€Å"In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth† From this it is quite clear that God pre-existed before the beginning of creation. In contrast, Hindus reject the concept that something can come from nothing for several reasons such as, the Bhagavad Gita (BG) states the eternality of matter: Material nature and the living entities should be understood to be beginningless† and also, from the Rig Veda: ‘There was neither non-existence nor existence: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it’ Instead they believe that the sacred sound ‘Om’ (a symbol of Brahman) was the first sound of creation. There was always something before creation, as it is an impossible notion to assume that anything can come from nothing. Brahman (the one ultimate reality) is believed to have 3 functions, which are shown by 3 Gods: Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu. He is the source of all manifestations. The universes are created by Lord Brahma, the creator, maintained by Lord Vishnu, the preserver, and destroyed by Lord Shiva, the destroyer. Brahman was before creation in which he was unmanifest; this is similar to God in Christianity as he is a spirit and is incomprehensible. ‘The wind from God is invisible’. Both religions state that ‘God’ created the universe by the power of his word/command. e. g. ‘Let there be light’), and with reference to The Cosmological argument, God within Christianity is timeless and spaceless, because this was part of his creation, the same as Brahman. However, whilst both God’s are eternal, it may not be clear that Brahman is outside time and space (primeval). Whilst both religions seem to be in this context, they are however similar in how they perc eive their ‘God’. Within Christianity, there is only one God and he is described as ‘holy’ – meaning special, separate and different. He is Omniscient (Infinite knowledge), omnipotence (ultimate power), omnipresence (present everywhere) and Omnibenevolent (All loving) – This can again be demonstrated from Genesis; ‘God must be timeless and spaceless to have been pre-existent before the beginning’ Similarly, Hindus believe that there is one true God, the supreme spirit, called Brahman. They suggest that Brahman is present in every person as the eternal spirit of their soul (showing a similar belief to an Omnipresent God). To Hindus, Brahman contains everything: To Christians, God IS everything. Hindu scriptures tell us that realizing our true essence (atman) as Brahman, will mean an end to all suffering, which can be contemplated to say that Brahman also has and omnibenevolent nature. However, raising one of the main conflicting comparisons between the two religions; Christians are monotheistic, they believe in only one personal God; this allows for a deity-devotee relationship. A loving relationship between God/Goddess and worshiper) Romans 5:8: ‘but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us’ Within Hinduism, everything is one. (Monism) Whilst it’s similar, in a way that God in Christianity has 3 descriptions ‘The God, the father, and the holy spirit’, and God (Brahman) in Hinduism is made out up of 3 forms; there are still conflicts that arise as there cannot be a deity-devotee relationship within Hinduism beliefs. (I. e. you c annot have a relationship if everything is one). In some aspects, Hinduism Is believed to be a polytheistic religion for the Gods and Goddesses are all real, separate and personal individuals to love and worship. On this belief, there is a strong deity-devotee relationship which is able. Like any relationship, arguably both sides should be getting something out of it – love, trust, gratitude, protection etc. Also, confusion and doubt at times. Although, in the case of a relationship with God/Goddess, it includes faith – which is necessary for God is so unique and incomparable. We can compare faith in Christianity and Hinduism; for example, Job, an extremely righteous man innocently suffering the loss of his possessions and family, still devotes himself to God: ‘Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him: but I will maintain mine own ways before him’ his faith is not broken and he is later rewarded; this is similar to Jnana Yoga in Hinduism beliefs. The faith performed in the practice is the key because ultimately the intellect is abandoned; utter dedication to a true understanding of one self will result in liberation (Moksha). Thus showing that both religions similarly have a challenging faith to undertake, although Christianity is more based on trust and understanding; they follow rules (the 10 commandments) to show God their dedication and faith; whereas in Hinduism, you are trying to gain the trust and understanding for yourselves. (E. g. in yoga, the realisation after all desires of Samsara are ridden, that you are one, everything is one) From this, suffering is understandably a major problem for both religions. For Christians, there are many arguments for the resolution of suffering; however the main one being reinforced by Augustine stating that since God endowed people with free will, we are able to choose freely to do evil or to do well. It is a test. â€Å"When the will abandons what is above itself, and turns to what is lower, it becomes evil not because that is evil to which it turns, but because the turning itself is wicked† (Hick, quoting Augustine p. 60. In Christianity hell is deemed as the eternal fate for sinners, in Hinduism it is a constant cycle of rebirths – an entrapment in Samsara. (Bhagavad Gita) â€Å"As a man casts off his worn-out clothes and takes on other new ones, so does the embodied soul cast off his worn-out bodies and enters other new†. Nonetheless, both Christian and Hindu beliefs take into account free will and own choices as a cause of suffering. Within Hinduism, Karma is the sum of a person’s actions in this and his previous state of existence; it follows as an effect of a cause. Both religions are also content to embrace the existence of suffering in the world, and in doing so, obtain Moksha (Hinduism), a release from the cycle of Samsara; and a new life brought up by God for Christians. Both therefore offer salvation through faith, love, and understanding, although it is also obvious to state that within Christianity salvation is found through God and Jesus Christ, whereas in Hinduism it is found from one’s own efforts (E. g. in Yoga). Incarnation is apparent in both religions; Jesus Christ and Krishna. Christians believe the incarnation of Jesus Christ was for the assurance of eternal life; by being born as a human being, and then dying on the cross, Jesus made ‘life after death’ possible. Jesus said, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies. ’ They believe if they follow Jesus’s teachings, and accept him as their Lord and saviour, then this new resurrection life awaits them. Krishna’s mission however being somewhat simpler was to rid the world of villains and produce a glimpse into the private life of God (increasing the chance of a deity-devotee relationship). Another difference being that Krishna is believed to of been incarnated many times for various different tasks. As we have already established, within Hindu beliefs, we are all trapped in the cycle of Samsara (i. e. reincarnation). Hindus believe that a person’s atman (spirit) is permanent and cannot change while the physical body is not permanent and can change. The atman is reborn many times and death is seen as a natural event so that the atman can move nearer to the ultimate release from rebirth; once the atman has reached moksha it can rest. Similar to this, Christians also believe in a life after death, however there are many different aspects to this life. Some, (E. g. Roman Catholics) believe in purgatory which is a time of cleansing from sin and preparing for heaven. Some also believe in hell, which is a place of evil and suffering for those who have sinned; Many Christians believe that there is a place in the Kingdom of God for members of other faiths, and for many who have not even believed in God on earth but have ‘done the will of God’ in many ways without knowing it. It has been told the in Christianity, heaven and hell is far too simplistic. John Hicks theodicy: ‘It’s not reincarnation but it’s similar, it has an emphasis on further opportunities after death to grow and develop. ’ This means that whilst both religions show an aspect to reincarnations within their beliefs; the true goal is to produce a loving relationship that is brought up with God in salvation after death. Both Hinduism and Christianity reject materialism as a substantial way of reaching salvation, as they are only temporary desires with minimal fulfilment. Jesus said: ‘Easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven’. Hindus show their ignorance to material possessions through yoga and deep dedication to God. As a conclusion Christianity and Hindu beliefs for God and/or existence, both highlight some similar concepts, such as life after death and Incarnation, yet have more conflicting differences; God, worship and salvation.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Phylum Annelida Essay Example

Phylum Annelida Essay Phylum Annelida L. annelleus = little ring Annelida have bodies consisting of many essentially similar ringlike segments (somites or metameres). This segmentation usually shows in both external and internal features, including muscles, nerves, and circulatory, excretory and reproductive organs. Phylum Annelida This phylum is divided into three classes: Oligochaeta: Earthworms Most earthworms and their equals are inhabitants of damp soil and fresh waters. Hirudinea: Leeches The leeches are found mainly in fresh water or on moist ground. Polychaeta: Bristle-worms The marine worms are found chiefly in close vicinity of the shore. †¢OLIGOCHAETA = Earthworms †¢HIRUDINEA = Leeches †¢POLYCHAETA = Bristle-worms Some annelids are free-living, many inhabit burrows or dwell in tubes, some are commensals on other aquatic animals (few are ecto- or endoparasites), and many of the leeches attach to vertebrates. †¢Symmetry bilateral. Triploblastic. The body is elongate and usually conspicuously segmented both internally and externally. †¢Appendages are minute rodlike chitinous setae, little to many per somite. Polychaeta have fleshy tentacles on its head and has the setae situated on the lateral fleshy parapodia. Most species of the class Hirudinea lack setae. †¢The Body is covered by a thin moist cuticle over columnar epithelium containing unicellular gland cells and sensory cells. Both the body wall and the digestive canal has layers of circular and longitudinal muscles. The body cavity (coelom) is well developed (except in the leeches) and is divided by septa in the Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. †¢A complete digestive canal is present in a tubular shape, extending the whole length of the body. A closed circulatory system of longitudinal blood vessels with branches extending laterally in each segment. Dissolved hemoglobin and free amoebocytes are usually present in the blood plasma. Respiration occurs via the epidermis or through gills in some tube dweller species. †¢Excretory system consists of one pair of nephridia per segment(somite). Each of these nephridia removes waste from the coelom and bloodstream directly to the outside world. A nervous system is present with a pair of cerebral ganglia ( a brain) and connectives to a solid (double) midventral nerve cord extending the length of the body. We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Phylum Annelida specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The midventral nerve cord is connected to pairs of lateral nerves in each segment. Sensory cells and organs for touch, taste and the perception of light is also present. †¢The sexes are united and the development in the case of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea are direct or the sexes are separate and the development includes a trocophore larval stage as with the Polychaeta. †¢Some species of Oligochaeta and Polychaeta reproduce asexually by budding. Earthworms have long, cylindrical body that is divided into similar segments. The grooves that extend around the body of the worm show the arrangement of the segments. Earthworms have bilateral symmetry The first body segment is called the peristomium. The peristomium contains the mouth. Instead, they depend on their prostomium and sensory receptors in their skin to feel their way through the soil. The periproct is the last segment of an earthworm. Reference: †¢Hickman Jr. C. P. and et al. , 2007. Animal Diversity 4th edition. Boston: McGrawHill †¢http://www. naturewatch. ca/english/wormwatch/resources/anatomy. html